What Is The Biopsychosocial Model ? Key Fields Of A Biopsychosocial Assessment

Health psychology also versed as behavioral medicine or medical psychology refers to the application of various psychological theories for health related practices. The domain of health psychology is based on two primary subfields which are behavioral health as well as behavioral medicine. The domain of behavioral health emphasizes on preventing health problem and illness where does behavioral medicine is more focused on the treatment prospective. Health psychology is related with psychology of diverse categories of health-related behaviour which includes nutrition and health care and decision making in medical care and exercise (Bolton and Gillett, 2019). The biopsychosocial model perceives health and illness based behaviour years as outcomes of biological characteristic like genes and behavioral factors like lifestyle and health belief along with social conditions like a cultural impact and family relationship.

Health psychologists are working in close association with the health care professionals and the patients in helping the people in general deal with their psychological as well as emotional aspects of illness. The development of prominent treatment protocols leads to increase of adherence with medical treatments and weight loss programs and so on (Kusnanto, Agustian and Hilmanto, 2018). The list is never ending. The research is emphasized on prevention as well as intervention programs or assessments designed for promotion of healthy lifestyle through activities like exercise and nutrition programs.

The Objectives Of Health Psychology

There are 8 primary objectives of health psychology. For the first in the list is understanding the behavioral as well as contextual factors related with health and illness. The following factor is prevention of illness. The third factor is investigation of the impact of diseases. The fourth factor is provision of critical analysis of the health policies. The following factor is conducting detailed research regarding prevention as well as intervention of the health problems. According to assignment help experts The sixth factor is improvement of the doctor patient communication. The last two factors at improvement of adherence with medical advice and lastly finding treatments to manage chronic physical pain (Pick et al., 2019).

Focuses On Health Psychology

The health psychology addresses of various individual and population based issues concerning four important domains, which are:

Clinical domain

– Public domain

– Community and

– Critical domain

Clinical health psychology is the first aspect referring the application of different aspects of scientific knowledge to the clinical questions arousing across the overall the nomenclature of Healthcare. Since it emphasizes on prevention and treatment of the health problems this is psychology is a speciality based practice area for the clinical psychologist School stop the clinical practices include educating people regarding mechanisms related with behaviour change as well as psychotherapy (Stilwell and Harman, 2019). The next in the list is public health psychology which investigates the potential causal link between the psychosocial factors as well as the health factors at the hierarchy of population level. The public health psychologists have been presenting a research results regarding epidemiological findings are associated with human behaviour as link in the same to educate others and policymakers and at large the Healthcare providers for promoting Public Health initiatives targeting the groups at risk for stop the following domain is that of community Health psychology. Investigates the community factors contributing towards overall health and wellbeing post of community Health psychology is responsible for development of community level intervention which are designed for combating diseases alongside promoting physical and mental health (Frazier, 2020). The examples include community health initiatives like general efforts for elimination of soft drink used at schools and organisation of diabetes awareness events and so on.

The final elements or domain is critical health psychology. It is related with the distribution of power as well as the influence of the power differential on overall societal health behaviour and manifestation of the health care systems and related health policy development. The critical health psychology gives the priority to social justice as well as a universal right of people to good health irrespective of their race or gender or age or socioeconomic position. The biggest concern at the moment is that of Health and equality and critical health psychologists are acting as the change agents working towards creation of equal access to potential health care in the society (Rodgers et al., 2020). To get free assistance from renowned writers, take coursework help online from SourceEssay experts anytime.

Bio Psychosocial Model Of Health And Illness

This model highlights that health and illness can be determined by dynamic interaction between three factors which are:

– Biological factors

– Social factors and

– Psychological factors

This model related with health and illness was a framework developed initially by renowned health psychologist George L Engel. The person stated that interactions between the biological and psychological as well as social factors are responsible for determination of cause, outcome and manifestation of wellness and disease related factors. On a historical basis, the popular theories like that of nature state versus that of nurture debate, reflects that any of the individual factors have been sufficient in changing the overall course of development (Miaskowski et al., 2020). This model also argues that any individual factory is insufficient at the same time. It is rather the interplay existing between genetic makeup of people and their mental health with associated behaviour in a specific cultural context which determines the course of their individual health related outcomes. To know more about Biopsychosocial Model take help from SourceEssay biology assignment help experts online.

Biological Influences On Health

Biological influences on our health include the genetic makeup of an individual alongside the history of infection and physical trauma of the individual. There are various disorders having inherited genetic vulnerabilities. The biggest individual risk factors referred to development of schizophrenia, income and instance is like having first-degree relatives having the disease. There is a risk of 6.5 % of being affected by the same disease by a person of the following generation in the same family. Over 40% of the monozygotic twins of people with the disease can also be affected with it. In fact one parent being affected with the disease increases the risk of their children being affected by 13% and in case if both parents have the disease then the risk is around 50% (Mescouto et al., 2020). It is clear evidence that genetics play a crucial role in development of the disease. However it is also equally clear that there should be other factors playing around. There are some non biological and mainly environment based factors which impact expression of this disorder along with revelation of the pre-existing genetic association of risk of getting schizophrenia.

Psychological Influences On Health

The psychological components of this model aim at finding psychological foundation for specific symptoms or a group of symptoms ranging across impulsivity to overwhelming sadness and irritability to mental tension. Individuals having genetic vulnerability have greater propensity of demonstrate in negative thinking which puts them in a position of risk of chronic depression. Alternatively, some psychological factors might also exacerbate biological predisposition by increasing the risk of that genetically valuable person based on other risk related behaviour (Doyle, 2020). For evidence depression on its own have the potential of revoking other physical problems like liver issues. However people with depression might be prone to alcohol abuse and therefore develop liver damage naturally. The increased risk taking can lead to increasing the likelihood of the parent disease as well as other associated diseases which are linked and un-linked with the existing disease.

Social Influence On Health

According to online assignment help Hobart experts Social factors including the likes of socioeconomic status, religion, culture, status, technology and so on, have a great impact on help. For evidence, as a person loses job because of the pandemic break out or ends social relationship, they are most likely to be affected by a great amount of stress which can even surely lead to the development of chronic illness. These are some specialised life events which might predispose individuals to development of depression which would in turn lead to the development of chronic physical health problems like diabetes and abnormal blood pressure (Gagliese et al., 2018). The influence of social factors has been widely recognised in concern to development of mental disorders like anorexia nervosa as well. It is a disorder which is characterized by additional and purposeful weight-loss irrespective of the evidence of body weight index. Fashion industry and general media promotes and healthy standards of beautification of women emphasizing on slimness of body over good health. It exerts additional social pressure among people of this of fraternity to attain the ideal shape of body irrespective of their obvious health risks.

Cultural Factors

An important layer in the social domain as described above are the cultural factors footstep for evidence in a difference in circumstance or expectation or belief system of various cultural groups lead to generation of various prevalence rates and symptom expression of disorders. Evidence anorexia in be considered as less common among non-western cultures as it puts less emphasis on slimness of women. Culture where is across geographical range. It can vary across small ranges as well like that of low income to high income areas. In the same way, the rate of disease and illness differs across various communities accordingly (Keller et al., 2019). Culture has the potential of changing biology to some extent also. The recent research regarding epigenetic show such proof. For evidence, it can be specially say that the research has suggested that environment is the potential age and to alter the genetic makeup of an individual. For evidence according to research the individuals who are exposed to overcrowding and poverty are exposed to a greater risk of developing depression with actual genetic mutations, formed over an individual generation.

Application Of A Bio-Psychosocial Model

This model highlights that working of the body and mind being influenced by the environment can affect each other. As per this model none of these elementary factors can individually lead to some definite IV illness or health issue and it is always the deep interrelation of all of these components leading to the given outcome of helpful stuff Health promotion should address these three factors singularly and also at the same time as any growing body of empirical literature have suggested till date that combination of the health status, social cultural barriers to access of healthcare as well as perceptions of health impact the likelihood of the patients in engaging into health promoting behaviour like medication or proper diet or nutrition or engaging into physical activities (Strober, 2018).

This model includes three essential components, namely psychological factors, biological and social factors. It is important to focus on these elements and gather data for assessment based on patient questionnaire as well as face to face interview. The alignment of these factors with the process of bio-psychosocial assessment is manifested below:

– Biological Factors

According to the American psychological association considered as any kind of chemical logical or genetic condition related with psychological disturbances. As highlighted by the National institute of Medical Health various mental disorders are caused by a combination of biological and genetic and environmental factors. Genes have a critical role to play in the mental health of a person and increase the risk related to development of specific disorders. Counsellors are expected to consider the family history of clients during the initial meeting. Some information about the client that should be taken into account include their genetic imbalance record, age, immunity response, environmental toxin, physical trauma, hormones, appetite as well as a sleep or exercise habits (Geraghty and Blease, 2019). The biological questions help in understanding the medical issues of land as well as their history can impact other aspects in their life. It is important to ask the client to fill out questionnaire regarding their personal medical as well as mental health and history and their family medical history along with family mental health history. Substance abuse history in their family should also be enquired around with the existing sleep record and diet practices of the patient.

– Psychological Factors

In a view of essay rewriter the psychological factors can be related with the thought process of the client and how it impacts his or her mental state and concerned behaviour. Psychological factors impact the physical well-being of the person and vice versa. For evidence according to a review recently published by Neural Plasticity, around 85% of the patients experiencing chronic pain also have a severe depression. As seen by researchers any chronic pain and depression is closely correlated and one disorder can affect the progress of the other. In order to understand the clients in a better way it is important to consider the psychological factors and related information (Gask, 2018). Some related information can be found from sources like personality related information as well as information about physiological trauma of the person. The recent coping skills and suicidal ideation about the person can also be inquired in this regard. The ability to handle stress and natural reaction to illness should also be enquired. Psychological component of bio-psychosocial assessment has an objective to paint the picture of the current thought and feelings and overall mental state of the person. In order to determine the psychological factors which impact the client’s health is important to provide them with the questionnaire which helps in reflecting current symptoms through a checklist of emotional and behavioural issues (Sharma et al., 2020).

– Social Factors

According to the American psychological association social factors are aspects which impact thought or behaviour of people in social contexts. According to a review by the Current Psychiatry Reports, social determinants like income level as well as family relationships have the potential of significantly impact in mental Health. For evidence based on the review it can be highlighted that there is a stark correlation between poor mental health as well as low income. Emotional support can be considered as protective factor against various common disorders related to mental health (Nelson, Conroy and Logan, 2019). Some factors that can be learnt in this regard by the intervening person include family relationship of the client along with available social support and marital status and related cultural influences. His or her spiritual or religious background and recreational activities can also be researched. The influence of factors like living situation and financial status and legal and educational history can also be researched. Alongside, it is important to help the person to understand that his or her past and current relationships have any impact on the psychological well-being. In this regard to work related stresses and finances and involvement with community are other essential factors (Porter, 2020).To know more about social factors you can take assistance from do my assignment experts of SourceEssay.

Conclusion

In conclusion it can be highlighted that the bio-psychosocial model states that deep interrelation between the three factors leads to a prominent outcome. These three factors are biological, social and psychological factors. Each component has its own impact however the individual factories in sufficient indefinite leading to a health or illness based outcome. The combined impact is however sufficient. The psychological components of this module aim towards finding psychological foundations for specific symptoms or a group of symptoms. The social and cultural factors in the list of factors affecting the psychosocial assessment are particular assessors like stressful events which differently impact mental health of people from various social environments. Despite its youth lead their issues with this model including degree of influence for respective factor and extent of interaction between factors and variation across individuals and their life spans.

Reference List

Bolton, D. and Gillett, G., 2019. The biopsychosocial model of health and disease: New philosophical and scientific developments (p. 149). Springer Nature.

Doyle, N., 2020. Neurodiversity at work: a biopsychosocial model and the impact on working adults. British Medical Bulletin135(1), p.108.

Frazier, L.D., 2020. The past, present, and future of the biopsychosocial model: A review of The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Disease: New philosophical and scientific developments by Derek Bolton and Grant Gillett. New Ideas in Psychology57, p.100755.

Gagliese, L., Gauthier, L.R., Narain, N. and Freedman, T., 2018. Pain, aging and dementia: towards a biopsychosocial model. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry87, pp.207-215.

Gask, L., 2018. In defence of the biopsychosocial model. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(7), pp.548-549.

Geraghty, K.J. and Blease, C., 2019. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and the biopsychosocial model: a review of patient harm and distress in the medical encounter. Disability and rehabilitation41(25), pp.3092-3102.

Keller, K.L., Kling, S.M., Fuchs, B., Pearce, A.L., Reigh, N.A., Masterson, T. and Hickok, K., 2019. A biopsychosocial model of sex differences in children’s eating behaviors. Nutrients11(3), p.682.

Kusnanto, H., Agustian, D. and Hilmanto, D., 2018. Biopsychosocial model of illnesses in primary care: A hermeneutic literature review. Journal of family medicine and primary care7(3), p.497.

Mescouto, K., Olson, R.E., Hodges, P.W. and Setchell, J., 2020. A critical review of the biopsychosocial model of low back pain care: time for a new approach?. Disability and Rehabilitation, pp.1-15.

Miaskowski, C., Blyth, F., Nicosia, F., Haan, M., Keefe, F., Smith, A. and Ritchie, C., 2020. A biopsychosocial model of chronic pain for older adults. Pain Medicine21(9), pp.1793-1805.

Nelson, S., Conroy, C. and Logan, D., 2019. The biopsychosocial model of pain in the context of pediatric burn injuries. European journal of pain23(3), pp.421-434.

Pick, S., Goldstein, L.H., Perez, D.L. and Nicholson, T.R., 2019. Emotional processing in functional neurological disorder: a review, biopsychosocial model and research agenda. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry90(6), pp.704-711.

Porter, R.J., 2020. The biopsychosocial model in mental health. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry54(8), pp.773-774.

Rodgers, R.F., Slater, A., Gordon, C.S., McLean, S.A., Jarman, H.K. and Paxton, S.J., 2020. A biopsychosocial model of social media use and body image concerns, disordered eating, and muscle-building behaviors among adolescent girls and boys. Journal of youth and adolescence49(2), pp.399-409.

Sharma, S., Breckons, M., Brönnimann Lambelet, B., Chung, J.W., List, T., Lobbezoo, F., Nixdorf, D.R., Oyarzo, J.F., Peck, C., Tsukiyama, Y. and Ohrbach, R., 2020. Challenges in the clinical implementation of a biopsychosocial model for assessment and management of orofacial pain. Journal of oral rehabilitation47(1), pp.87-100.

Stilwell, P. and Harman, K., 2019. An enactive approach to pain: beyond the biopsychosocial model. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences18(4), pp.637-665.

Strober, L.B., 2018. Quality of life and psychological well-being in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS): Importance of adopting a biopsychosocial model. Disability and health journal11(4), pp.555-561.

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